|EARLY HISTORY OF DELAWARE
For a proper understanding of the Stallcup family history some background about the Delaware Colony is necessary.
Henry Hudson discovered Delaware Bay and River for the Dutch in 1609. The following year Captain Samuel Argall of Virginia named the Bay for Lord De la Warr, the governor of that colony. After the Dutch lost this, their "South River" the name Delaware survived. In 1631 the first settlement on Delaware soil was made at Swanendael, the present Lewes. Its purpose was to catch whales and plant grain and tobacco, but the settlers were massacred by the Indians. When the Dutch West India Company failed to meet the expectations of its founder, William Usselinx, he proposed plans for trade and colonizing to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Swedish and Dutch interest resulted. finally in the jointly financed New Sweden Company and an expedition to the Dutch South River, the Delaware, in charge of Peter Minuit, former Dutch governor of New Netherland. In 1638, Minuit established a settlement at what is now Wilmington, naming it Fort Christina in honor of the child queen Christina, and naming the entire territory New Sweden.
The next settlement was made by a group of Dutch, Swedes and Finns in 1641. In 1642 the Swedes purchased the Dutch holdings in the New Sweden Company and a new company, popularly known as the South Company, was chartered and a governor, Johan Printz, was sent out by the Swedish Crown. Friction soon arose with the Dutch who looked on the Swedes as unwelcome competitors for the fur trade with the Indians. In 1651, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, and more aggressive than his predecessors, built Fort Casimir near what is now New Castle. In 1654 Printz's successor, Johan Claesson Rising, expelled the Dutch from Ft. Casimirs. In retaliation, Stuyvesant, in 1655, with seven vessels and several hundred men, recaptured the fort and also captured Fort Christina (Wilmington), New Sweden was now Dutch and part of New Netherland.
In 1664 New Netherland was seized by the English. By the treaty of Westminster the "three counties on the Delaware " became part of the English possessions in Amesica held by the Duke of York, later James II. In August, 1682, the Duke of York conveyed the colony to William Penn.
It was at this place and time period that the Stallcup family had its beginnings. The family became very active in the affairs of the colony particularly so after the English takeover, and continued its very prominent position for about one hundred years, or up until the start of the Revolutionary war. Family members were large land owners and owned and operated businesses that were vital to the community. They even helped start the first school in the area.
From the second generation through the fifth the family was very active in the affairs of the Old Swedes' Church. A portion of the land on which to build the church was given by John Stalcop (2nd. Gen.), Various other family members, from time to time, worked on the church or donated money and materials, John Stalcop later sold land for the glebe (A plot of land belonging or yielding profit to an English parish) of the new church,
There are many references in the records of the Old Swedes' Church concerning the Stalcop family. Births, marriages and deaths, as well as church business. There are twenty-three known Stalcop burials in the church yard. Since the site of the church was the site of the Swedish burial ground perhaps even Johan Anderson Stalkofta is also buried somewhere nearby.
The Old Swedes' Church has been designated as a National Historical Site. Regular services are still held there. The church is now under the care of the Holy Trinity (Old Swedes') Foundation. The Hendricks House, moved by the Foundation from Pennsylvania to serve as a museum library and church office, was once connected to the family of Karin Morton, wife of third generation John Stalcop.
The Colony phase of the Stallcup family history encompasses the first four generations. During this period almost all members of the growing family lived in or near Wilmington, Delaware.
The above sketch of Delaware History was contributed by:
In the following chapters is an account of the arrival of John Anderson at Fort Christina, the origin of the Stalcop name and some of the contributions to the Delaware colony and other activities of the family during this period of Delaware history.
JOHN ANDERSON'S ARRIVAL AT FORT CHRISTINA
The Stalcups in this genealogy are descendants of John Anderson who came from Sweden to Fort Christina in New Sweden (Delaware) in 1641. It is thought that most families bearing the name Stalcup, Stallcup, Staulcup, Stallcop or any variation of those names are his descendants with exception of a few families found in Wisconsin in 1880 and later. They are listed in the Appendix of this work. They list Germany as their homeland.
Several John Andersons came to New Sweden as very early settlers. This has been the cause of much confusion in regard to the birth place and time of arrival of the John Anderson who later became Stallcop. Peter Stebbins Craig has done much research on early settlers in New Sweden. His articles have been published in National Genealogical Society Quarterly. The quotations from a letter which he wrote to Larry S. Stallcup on 31 March 1984 seem to answer all the questions in regard to John Anderson's arrival and also the arrival of his wife's family. We quote from Peter S. Craig's letter. I see, however, that I am not the only person who has contributed to confusion on the origins of the Stalcop family in America. The worst villain is E. A. Louhi whose book (The Delaware Finns) is a fraud. I have not read either L. D. Stallcup's 1937 genealogy or Harry G. Staulcup's 1946 thesis, but they too seem to have contributed to the confusion by (a) relying upon Louhi and K (b) confusing John Anderson Stalcop with the many other John Andersons of New Sweden.
There were at least six adult John Anderson males of Swedish or Finnish extraction living close to the Delaware River in the Seventeenth Century -- John Anderson Stalcop, John Anderson Soldier: John Anderson Smith: John Anderson Cock; John Anderson String: and John Anderson Gioding.
Let us start with John Anderson Stalcup. He is variously shown in the records as "Johan, a boy", "Johan Anderson von Strengnis," Johan Stalkofta" or just plain John Anderson (in its various spellings). "Johan. a boy" sailed from Gothenburg 3 May 1641 on the Charitas (Johnson, Swedish Settlements, 151-52). His full name is supplied in the 1648 roll list which describes him as "Johan Anderson, from Strangnmas" who was "hired by Kling in 1641 for a farm hand. On October 1, 1646, he was hired by Printz to serve as a soldier. He seems to have left with Printz." (Johnson, Swedish Settlements 711~2)
The insertion of Johnson's opinion in the matter and the omission of sources are regrettable.
The sources of Johnson's 1648 roll list, with reference to John Stalcop are twofold: The basic source was the "Rulle der Volcker". So in New Schweden den 1 Marty Anno 1648" (1648 roll list) and the "Monat Gelder Buch". The first was a listing of all adult male inhabitants of New Sweden, 1 March 1648, listed in order_of their arrival in New Sweden. The second is Governor Printz' monthly account book which lists the soldiers in his employment during his tenure as governor. Both were transcribed, at the request of the Governor of New Jersey, around the turn of the century and are on file in the state's archives at Trenton, New Jersey. I have copies of both.
As to John Stalcop, the 1648 roll list stated simply: Johann Andersson, ist von dito Klingh in Anno 1641 vor ein Knecht zum ackerbaw angenomen, und her nach zum Solldaten verordnet." The word "dito" (ditto) is a reference to the fact that Klingh has before been identified as "Mans." Johnson correctly translates this as meaning that Johan Anderson had been hired by Mans Kling to serve as a hand (servant). Later, by this, he became a soldier.
That this John Anderson was the same as "Johan, a boy" is demonstrated by the names preceding and following his -- all of them were also passengers on the Charitas.
Amandus Johnson's other source, Printz' monthly account book, reporting "Johan Anderson von strengnis Soldat, Anno 1646 prima October biss 1653 prima Septemb."
Roughly translated, this means that John Anderson from Strangnas served as a soldier from 1 October 1646 to 1 September 1653. The ending date has no significance, (All soldiers on the list still on as in 1653 are shown as terminating on 1 September 1653; the significance of the date means only that this is when Governor Printz closed his books to prepare to flee back to Europe. In effect that was the date of his resignation as governor of New Sweden.
At the end of the 1644 roll list is a list of persons who died in New Sweden, after Printz' arrival in 1643. Included on this list was the death of freeman "Johann Finne" who drowned at Upland 1 March 1644. (Johnson, Swedish Settlements 707). He had been a laborer for the company. Louhi's imagination linked this Johann the Finn to Johan Anderson the boy who arrived on the Charitas.This invention of his has put the Stalcop family astray for half a century
In 1644, when Johan the Finn drowned at Upland, Johan Andersson was alive and well as a laborer at Upland. (Johnson, Swedish Settlememt 705). In his listing, Johnson adds the surname "Stalkofta", which is correct, but the surname was not on the original list, a transcription of which is in the New Jersey state archives at Trenton (I have a copy).
Having correctly identified "Johan, a boy" as "Johan Anderson from Strangnis" and as "Johan Andersson Stalkofta", it is difficult to understand Amandus Johnson's surmise that he returned to Sweden with Printz in 1653. He reports him as gunner or constable in 1654-55 under Governor Rising, in charge of cutting pine timber in west Jersey and as defending Captain Sven Schute after the fall of Fort Casimir (501, 50? 521-22. 717).
Other proof that John Anderson Stalcop remained as an officer of New Sweden under Governor Rising is contained in Rising's own journal, a rough transcription of which is in the Balch Institute library in Philadelphia (My colleague, Dr. Richard Hulan is presently doing an accurate translation).
You will be interested in the references to John Stalcop: p. 43: (After 27 July 1654) "Gunner Johan Stalkofta was instructed to order timber and planks for our buildings." p. 46-7. After 18 August 1654) One after another of the old people began asking for release from the service of the Company, Namely Gunner Johan Stalkofta"and they wanted to go with Lady Armegot.
Printz up to Tinicum .... therefore each one was examined separately...Thus they were all brought to reason again, so they remained in their service."
p. 6-61: At the 8 November 1654 trial of Sander Karsson for enticing Swedes and Finns to desert to Maryland: "Then a soldier by the name of Lars Olofsson Finna was accused of receiving the same message when he was going to work, which was proved against him by Johan Stalkofta, the Gunner."
With the surrender of New Sweden to Governor Stuyvesant in 1655, Johan Andersson Stalkofta from Strengnes in Sweden did not shed his military garb and become a freeman. He continued his same occupation, as is shown by the following court entry of 18 December 1655 (Dutch Calendar), reported in Gerhing, Delaware Papers (Dutch), 1648-1664, which said: "The commandant, Dirick Smit, appears to petition for a certain table and wardrobe which he allegedly bought from the gunnery sergeant, Jan Staelcop; the aforesaid gunnery sergeant was heard and declared to have sold the same to him, and whereas the aforesaid Dirck Smit was offered payment for the table to be used by the vice-director, he would not, however give up what belonged to him." (Gehring, p.48)]
L. D Stallcup thought that John Anderson Stallcop's wife was Christina Carrolls. She was referred to as Carol's daughter (Carolsdotter) which indicated that her father was named Carl or Carol. For some reason it was assumed his last name was Carrolls and for almost fifty yearsi t has been assumed that Christina Carrols was the female ancestor of the Stallcop family.
Mr. Peter S. Craig has also found the true record and has corrected this error. we again quote from his letter.[In the next year - 1636 - there arrived the ship Mercurius, which _totally transformed Johan Stalkofta's life. On board were Carl Johnsson, his wife, his maideservant and three children (not named)— one of whom must have been Christina Carlsdotter, later the wife of John .Anderson Stalcop. we know this because Carl Johnsson was the only Carl in former New Sweden in the time frame that is relevant.
There now follows a few facts relevant to Carl Johnsson, who was apparently of Finnish extraction (virtually everybody on the Mercurius was Finnish). As of 1671 "Charles Janson" was the head of a household at ·Marcus Hook (Gehring, 2: 107). Under the Dutch government (i.e, before 1664) the 1,000 acre tract at Marcus Hook had originally been granted to Charles Janson, Olle Raessen or Rawson, John Hendrickson, Hans Hopman (Hoffman), Olle Nilsson, and Hans Olleson. It was surveyed by Wharton on 27 July 1675, whose survey was recorded 13 July 1676. An English patent, from the Duke of York, was finally issued on the property on 28 March 1676/7. (Wharton's Surveys, 62-63: 2 Gehring 125; Upland Court Record, 103»04; Duke of York record, 99—100; 2 Gehring 10-7).
The 1675 rebellion against forced service on a dike for Hans Block resulted in a fine of 60 guilders against Carell Janse's servant "Copp" (probably Stalcop, a grandson)° New Castle Court Records, 1: 1630.Notwithstanding this fine, Charles Johnson appears to have remained a resident of Marcus Hook, which was then within the Upland Court jurisdiction. On 13 November 1677 "Carrell Jansen" of Marcus Hook was shown as a tydanle (taxable) in the Upland Court jurisdiction. (Upland Court Record, 80). On 18 June 1678, "Carrell Junson" of Marcus Hook recorded the transfer of his colleague Hans Hofman's share of the property to Morgan Druit, late of London, mariner. (Ibid, 103)4 April 1681, "Charles Johnson" of Marcus Hook Sued "Oele Raesenin the New Castle Court; the defendant did not appear and a nonsuite was ordered. (New Castle Court Records, 1: 477).
At the same time, Charles Johnson was also being sued in the New Castle Court by Isaac Savoy. The lawsuit was twice postponed (New Castle Court Records, 1: 486, 490). Its outcome is not reported.
Most of the residents of Marcus Hook had sold their property to incoming Englishmen and moved to New Jersey. Apparently Charles Johnson was originally of this view. On 3 June 1682, "Charles Jenson", H?? Woolston (Olleson), and Daniel Linzey (who claimed under James San?lands) claimed ownership of 450 acres in west Jersey under a grant dated 25 June 1668; the property was in the Fourth Tenth of Gloucester County (Gloucester County, north of Oldman's Creek). It would appear that the claim was not recognized, as Charles Johnson's name never thereafter appears in west Jersey records. However, Hans Olleson thereafter appears as a land-owner in Salem County, New Jersey, on the south side of Oldman's Creek.
On 13 June 1682, a lawsuit against "Charles Johnson" by Captain Camwell (English) at the Upland Court was withdrawn by the plaintiff (Chester Court Records, 1: 18).
The final discovered reference to Charles Johnson occurs on 17 October1683 when John Hendrickson recorded the transfer of meadow land Marcus Hook to Charles Johnson (Chester Court Records 1: 33).
Before closing on Charles Johnson, John A, Stalcop's father-inlaw, I should note that there were two other Charles Johnsons in New Sweden in the 17th. century, neither of which was related to our subject. They were:
1. Carl Jansson.hn:Johansson), from Kexholm, Finland, who came to America in 1641 on the Charitas as a single man for punishment and served as bookkeeper until 1647-48 when he was sent back to Sweden.(Johnson, Swedish Settlements 150, 152~53, 409, 461, 706; Johnson, Instructions for Johan Printz, 120-21, 141, 172, 259). He was a ba??elon throughout his tenure in America and could not have been the Charles Johnson who came to America in 1656 with a wife, maid-servant and three children, one of whom shortly thereafter married John Anderson Stalcop.
2. Charles Johnson of Rehobeth (Delaware) who was nominated as justice of the Whorekill Court in October 1678 but rejected (he could not write) and served as a juror on the same court in February 1680 (Gehring, 2: 206¤O7, 278—79). At this time, Charles Johnson, father-in-law of John Andersson Stalcop was a resident of Marcus Hook (in present Pennsylvania). It would appear that this Charles Johnson was English in origin.
As we have previously seen, Charles Johnson of the Mercurius, father of Christina Carlsdotter, wife of John Anderson Stalcop, arrived in America in 1656. His daughter, Christina, probably born in Finland or in Sweden of Finnish parents, could not have married John Anderson before that year.
In order to give definite proof that the above mentioned John Anderson is the one who became Stalcop, Mr. Craig has identified the other five John Andersons. we quote from his letter.
Now, let's look at the other John Andersons:
1. Johan Anderson, Soldat, was in the employment of Governor Printz from 1 November 1642 to 1 April 1648. Monat Gelder Buch. He arrived on the Swan,as shown by the ship's accounts in the Amandus Johnson papers at the Balch Institute. En route to America, he was charged ??RD for the purchase of two pounds of tobacco, 1 shirt, 1 pair of shoes and 4 1/2 yards of cloth. (Incidentally, the boatswain on this voyage was named Johan Andriessen who returned with the Swan in 1643).
Johan Anderson, Soldat (soldier), had no role in America other than his appelation, serving to confuse people like us. He was serving in 1644 at Tinicum Island (with three other Andersons and left New Sweden in 1648 (Johnson, Swedish Settlements, 706, 716).
2. Jons Andersson Smidt (blacksmith) arrived in New Sweden on the Orn in 1654 (Johnson, Swedish Settlements, 717). The next confirmed reference to him does not occur until the November 1677 list of tydables of the New Castle Court, where he is shown as "Juns the Smith 1 tydable." (New Castle Court Records, 1: 161). he must"have died shortly thereafter. On 5 November 1678, "Jan Staalcop" was one of those appearing in the New Castle Court to prove the nuncapative will of "Juns Anderson Smith, late of Christina," who bequeathed his entire estate to Samuel Peterson. (Id., 244). It is likely that he never married and had no children of his own. (This Smith is not to be confused with John Smith, a carpenter,apparently English, who was a contemporary in the same area.)
3, John Anderson Cock (cook) first appears on the American stage of history in 1673 when, on 1 September 1673, his parents Anders Anderson and Christina Goolbrant, conveyed to him one half of his father's 1/3 interest in 900 acres on Christina Creek, originally patented to Anders Anderson, Sinnecka Broer and Walra Johnson De Foss (the fox), September 1669, (New Castle Court Records, 1:4888··-9) This John Anderson was obviously confused by one Stalcop historian who ascribed his parents to being the parents of John Anderson Stalcop. During the first half of his life, this John Anderson did not have the surname Cock. Thus, he first appears in the New Castle Court records on 8 December 1676 where both "Jan Andriess" and "Jan Staal Kopp"ask leave to fetch their hogs in the woods. (Id. 34).]
Peter S. Craig presents further evidence that the above John AndersonCock died in 1713. His name appeared in records of Old Swedes Church stating that he lived on St. Georges Creek in his final years. Since this John Anderson was called John Anderson Cock (cook) it is logical to assume that the traditional account of John Anderson Stalcop, the cook, and the greasy towel "Steel cap" origin of the family name, came from this source.
We continue now with the fourth John Anderson as described in Mr.Craig's letter.
[John Anderson Strang. The John Strang genealogy, published in 45 ·Gen. Mag. N.J. 111, was unable to determine the roots of John Strang who died 7 July 1726 in Raccoon (Seedesboro, N. J.)· The author was unaware that the name of his progenitor was originally John Anderson who, in 1689, entered underneath his own name "alias String." (Stewart, Gloucester County,`2l)." This John Anderson had crossed Delaware River from the Philadelphia area where his name appeared periodically in the Upland Court Record. Known as John Anderson the Big in early Burlington/ Gloucester County Court records, his offspring (at least eight in number) were commonly identified as Strang in the records of the Raccoon (Swedesboro) Church. "Strang" in Swedish means strict. Coincidentally, John Anderson Stallcop came from Strangnas in Sweden.
5. John"Anderson Gioding. John Hanson Steelman, son-in-law of John Anderson Stalcop, somehow became quite indebted to John Anderson Strang, a sometimes schoolmaster in Delaware. Rev. Bjork made payment to this John Anderson on Steelman's account as early as 1700. No earlier reference to this John Anderson has yet been found.
As you can see from the above, the name John Anderson was quite common to the Delaware River settlers of the 17th. century. Probably because of this fact, they searched for alternate names. were this not the case, your last name today would be Anderson, not Stallcup.
The above record was contributed by: Peter S. Craig
THE FIRST STALLCUPS - A New Name - A New Homeland
The true origin of the Stalcup surname is found in the previous chapter;. t is very clear that John Anderson was a soldier who wore armor since he was very early identified by the nickname Stalkofta or Steel-coat. He retained this nickname after his service to the colony as a soldier and eventually Stalkofta was ang1icized to Stalcop.
There was a second version of the origin of the name, based on tradition,which was set forth in L, D. Stallcup's Outline of the Stalcup Family, 1937. It stated that John Anderson came to Fort Christina in 1641 on the Key of Kalmar, as a cook. He wore a woolen cap which he used as towel for wiping his hands. The cap became soiled, greasy and glossy, giving it the appearance of polished steel. For this reason he was called the Steel-cape and was later known as Stalcop. L. D. Stallcup also assumed that this John Anderson was the one known as John Anderson Cock (cook) and for this reason listed his parents as Andreas Anderson and Christina Goolbrant. This assumption is refuted in the previous chapter. we have no clue as to the parents of John Anderson Stalcop.
John Anderson Stallcop was probably born about 1627. He was called "a lad" in 1641 so we can assume that he was about fourteen years of age at that time. His wife, Christina Jonson, was probably born about 1638. She arrived in New Sweden (Delaware) in 1656. She and John Anderson Stallcop were probably married soon thereafter.
We know that John Andeneon Stallcop was engaged in business in the colony by 1656. Harry G. Staulcup cited references to his involvement in a court investigation into an unpaid tobacco debug (Harry G.Staulcup, Notes on the early Stalcup Family in Delaware, 1946, P- 8)
In 1662 Johan Stalcop is mentioned in a land dispute involving the absence of a clear title. This land quandry is related in a letter from William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant dated May 12, 1662 at Aletena. The letter asks Stuyvesant to confirm a grant of land previously made to Peter Mayes, who had sold it to Jahan Stalcop in 1661, so that Stalcop might have clean title to the land which was located west of Fort Aletena, in the little town of Christinaham. The land included a town lot and a house with adjoining Lands (H. G. Staulcup, Notes on the Early Stalcup family in Delaware, 1946, p 9).
In 1658, Joost Andrieanson and a company of others received a grant of land from William Beeckman, the Dutch vice-director, in order that they might build a grist-mill at "Turtle Falls kil." This mill was finally built by Johan Stalcop, Lucas Peterson and Hans Block between1658 and the summer of 1662. In 1662 the proprieters of the mill wrote to the Director General of the Netherlands, asking for letters-patent for the mi1l,, and also asking that land adjoining the mill be included so that the mill-keeper could live and stay at the mill. There is no further mention concerning this mill during the life span of Johan Anderson Stalcop. It probably stayed in the Stalcop family since John Stalcop, a grandson, was a miller and proprietor of the same mill in later years. (Harry G. Stau1cup, Notes on the early Stalcup Family in Delaware, 1946 pp 9-10).
John Anderson Stalcop owned a small tract of land near the fort in 1660, adjoining the land he later bought from Pete: Meyer, which he may have owned since 1655. (J, Eckman, Crane Hook on the Delaware, 1958, p. 96)
Dutch Rule of the colony came to an end in the year 1664. Eng1ish forces, sailing up the Hudson in the autumn, compelled Stuyvesant to surrender on September 3rd. On the same day Sir Robert Carre was comissioned to proceed to the Delaware for the purpose of bringing the colony under the power and authority of the English Crown. He arrived on September 30 and on October 1, the articles of capitulation were signed. In 1669, following this act of history, Johan Anderson Stalcop became involved in an ill fated attempt at rebellion against the English Rule on the Delaware. The leader and the man who engineered this plot against the English was a Finn by the name of Marcus Jacob. As a dissatisfied member of the Delaware Colony, he was able to play upon the greed and dissatisfaction of the other members of the Colony to the point that they were persuaded into taking an active part in the plotting of this rebellion. (Harry G. Staulcup, Notes on the EarlyStalcop Fami1y in Delaware, 1946, pp,10—11).
The participation of our ancestor in this rebellion, commonly known as the "Long Finn Rebellion" is recorded here.
"Johan Andesssen, a gunner nicknamed Stalkofta, or the Steelcoat,and John Coleman, wire puller from behind the sences, were members of the inner circle. Each had secret motives. Just as Armegot (Armegot Pzintz, daughter of Governor Johan Printz) wished to recover Big Belly's (Johan Printz) brewery and to regain his pleasure yacht, so Anderssen and Coleman, none too successful farmers, coveted the estates of Englishmen. The Steelcoat, it was whispered, looked lecherously at lovely ladies and da1lied with the thought that he could have a harem. His trim, gold-laced unifozm, especially designed to set off his best features and to divert attention from a certain physical peculiarity, was always glittering where the women of the colony were wont to congregate. It was, in fact, his longing for the wives other men that first caused his fellows to band together for the overthrow of Jacobsen's intrigue." (Harry Emerson Wildes, The Delaware, New York, 1940, po 35). The plan of rebellion came to the ears of the Engiish authorities before its execution, and Marcus Jacobsen was apprehended and placed in prison to await trial, (Harry G. Staulcup, Notes on the Early Stalcop Family in Delaware, 1946, p. 11). The immediate fate of the others involved in the rebellion is recorded in the following letter fzom Governor Lovelace to Captain John Carr."I doe think it would mst be amiss if for punishment to ye simpler sont of those who have beene drawn into this comotion you injoyne them to labour sometymes in ye separation of ye workes about ye Fo??. But for John Stalcop be sure he be secured in like manner as the Lo??Seeed, He having beene I percieve a Cheife fometor as wail as an Ao?? in this by them intended tragedy. The mischiefe whereof is like to fall upon their owne heads." (B. Frenow, Documents of the Dutch and Swedish Serttlements, Albany, 1877, p, 466).
The trial was held on Octcbes 18, 1669 and the prisoners were sentenced. The Long Finn was sentenced to be whipped, branded on the ???? and transported from the Colony. The rest of the prisoners were fined. Heading this list of fines is John Sta1cop, whose fine was 1500 guilders.(B. Frenow, Documents of the Dutch and Swedish Settlements, Albany 1877. pp. 469-70).
John Anderson Stallcop became a large landowner by 1669. The land on which the city of Wilmington now stands, was granted by Colonel Francis Lovelace, Governor General of the Territories held by the Duke of York, to John Anderson, and Tymen Stidham. The grant to Stidham is dated at Fort James in New York, the old Fort Amsterdam, the 23rd of May 1671. Johan Anderson Stalcop's patent was probably taken out about the same time. The original patent has been lost but it is recited in a later Indenture between Thomas Willing and John Hannums, dated August 4, 1737. It says the original patent was dated "in or before the year 1674." It could not have been later than 1673 since Lovelace left the country in that year and did not return. This grant to John Anderson by Sir Francis Lovelace, like that of Tymen Stidham,was for the purpose of confirming to him his right, obtained either by purchase or original possession of the land.
John Anderson Stalcop's tract contained eight hundred (800) acres of land. It was bounded on the north by Stidham's land: on the west by Rattlesnake run, and a line of marked trees; on the south by Christina, and the meadows then under water; and extending eastward into the neighborhood of the old church. (Harry G. Staulcup, Notes on the Early Stalcup Family in Delaware, 1946, pp. 12-13) .
"Later on the 16th of April, 1675, Anderson granted to Samuel Peterson and Lars Cornelison, one half of his landed property, without stating or making out any definite line of division. Lars Cornelison sold his claim under the article to Justa Anderson. Anderson assigned his interest to Matthias Defoss, who afterward sold it to a certain Charles Pickering. Peterson in the mean time holding his share under the original contract with Anderson. (See map dated 1772 in the Appendix) (Ferris, Original settlements, Wilmington, 1846, p. 197)
John Anderson Stalcop held other tracts of land. Exact location of some are not known. An entry from the Court of New Castle dated Wednesday the 3rd of October, 1677, says;
From the above entry we know that John Anderson Stalcup had eight children born before 1677. Only seven are accounted for in his Will. At least one child must have died young, before 1679.
Christina, the wife of John Anderson Stalcop is first mentioned in public records on 16 July 1678 when she was a witness in a case against Justa Andries and Aeltie, his wife. This case was in theCourt at New Castle.
Both John Anderson Stalcop and his wife were defendants in defamation case in the Court at New Castle on March 2nd and 3rd in 1680. The suit was brought by Justa Andries and his wife Aeltie.
The last mention of Jan Anderson Stalcop in the Records of the Court of New Castle, is in an entry dated December 27, 1681. It concerns a survey made by Ephriam Herman, surveyor. The results of the survey were attested by Mr. John Moll and then sent to New York for patents of confirmation. This sunvey was for Schilpats mill Land 78 acres laid out for Jan Staelcop, Peter deWitt, Mary Blocq, Hans PetersenPelle Hendricks and several other persons; (Harry G. Staulcup, Notes on the Early History of the Stalcup Family in Delaware, 1946, pp. 16, 17,.18).
Immediately after the advent of William Penn, the inhabitants of the Colony on the Delawase were invited to take an oath of allegiance to the new form.of government. on Feburary 21 1683 those wishing to take the oath were gathered at the Court in the town of New Castle. The oath administered was as follows:
The exact date of John Andesson Stalcop's death is not known. He made his will on August 24, 1679 and it was probated on July 20, 1686. Mr.Peter S Craig furnished the following information and speculation of the time of death for both John Andetson Stallcop and wife, Christina. E
[Date of death, Probably 1684, The 1683/4 tax list for the New CastleCourt jurisdiction, current as of the winter of 1683/4 and probably made up for the "new year", which then began on March 25th, showed Jan Stalcop with 717 acres north of Chnistina (Records of New Castle I County Records, 2: 83).
The 1684/5 tax list, howeves, lists "wldow Stalcop" with 770 acres north of Christina Creek (New Castle Count Records, 2: 102). This suggests that John Anderson Stalcop had died sometime during 1684.
On 2 June 1685 Chsistina Stalcop, Mary Flock and Batbama Masshland deeded their deceased husbands' intesests in the mill-land at SkilsCreek. (New Castle Count Recosds, 2: 108).
Christina's death. Christina probably died some time between 1693and 1697. As "Kersten Stahlkopp" with a family of three (undoubtedly her two youngest chlldren), she headed the list of the Christina congregation in Charles Springes's 1693 church census, the most accurate (geographically) transcription of which appears in Peter Kalm's T??aggsband, published in Finland ln 1929.
She is never mentioned in Bjork's journal after his arrival in 169? (despite the promlnence of other Stalcops) and may be presumed to have died by this time, although, as a widow, she might have been living with one of her chlldren and simply ceased to be active in the church. Another possibility: she remarried.
John Andesson Stallcop's land holdings amounted to 994 acres at the time it was divided in 1686. On May 10, 1693 Charles Pickering sold approximately 500 acres (including the same land that he had previously bought from Mathias DeFoss which had been previously a part of John Anderson Stalcop's origlnal grant of 800 acres) to John $talcop's widow, Christina and their son John. (Deed Book-1, 103), John Anderson Stalcop's land as divided in 1686 is shown in Book of Surveys (Penn), 448-452, when the separate tracts add up to 994 acres instead of 600. (Jeanette Eckman, Crane Hook on the Delaware, 1958, p. 97) There is a reference to the 600 acre patent to John Stalcop in 1677 in a discussion of early mills in Delaware.
"On the east side of Red C1ay Hill on 600 acres patented in 1677 to John Stalcop, a 1og mill called the [Swedes Mill] was built very early but torn down by 1812." (Henry C. Conrad, History of the State of Delaware, p 404).
By the end of the 17th. Century, the second generation_of Stalcops had replaced their immigrant parents and were making their contributions to the growth of the young Delaware colony. we know that all of the children of John Anderson and Christina Jonnson Stalcop were born in the colony. We have tried to estimate the approximate date of their births. By the time of his death, John Anderson had taken his nickname (Stalkofta) as his new name and all of his children were known as Stallcop or some variation of that name which was spelled in many ways at that time as well as in this present generation. [Stalcop,Stallcop; Staalkap; Staa1kopp, Stallcup; Stalcup, Staulcup; Stahlkupp and many other spellings].
THE STALCUP FAMILY FIRST GENERATION
1. JOHN ANDERSON STALLCOP, was born about 1627 at Strangnas, Sweden.;
2 ANDREW STALLCOP, son of John Anderson Stallcop (1) and Christina Jonnson, was born about 1657 in Delaware colony. He married Cathrina _____ probably by 1675~6. He died by 1695 and his widow married Lulof Stidham on October 5, 1695, Lulof Stidhamfirst married daughter of John Anderson Stallcop [name unknown].
Andrew obtained 200 acres of land from the English Government in 1682, one of the last granted before occupation of the territory by William Penn. In 1684 he was listed for the first time as a tithable person with 117 acres. In 1685 Andrew owned 136 acres in 1686, after the death of his father, he had 450 acres listed in his name. He had probably received his share of his father's land. (Harry G- Staulcup, Notes on the Early Stalcop Family in Delaware, 1946, pp. 22-23.).
His portion of his father's estate is described as follows:"...lay on the south-west of the Peterson's tract, and extended westward beyond the poor house about half a mile. How far south-westward its extent is not certainly known. It included all the lower part of Clement's Creek, which is the first stream crossed on the Wilmington and Christiana turnpike road, by travellers int he route to Baltimore. On the westerly part of it stands the Poorhouse, Gailey's boarding school, the toll gate on the Wilmington and Lancaster turnpike, and a number of dwellings belonging to the descendants of Andrew Stalcop, the sons of old John Anderson, or to their assigns." (Benjamin Ferris, Original Settlements, Wilmington1846, p. 199) The division of this land is not known. However, his son John is definitely known to have possessed at least part of it, for John's son Andrew was last of the Stalcop line to have held part of this land by direct inheritance from Johan Anderson Stalcop the original grantee. See map in the appendix dated 1772.
By the year, 1687, Andrew Stalcop's land holdings had been reducedto 225 acres. (Harry G.Staulcup, Notes on the Early Stalcop Familyin Delaware, 1946, pp. 23-24)
3 -- CAROLS (CHARLES) STALLCOP, son of John Anderson Stallcop (l) and Christina Jonnson, was born about 1658 in Delaware colony. There is no record of his marriage. He took the oath of allegiance to Penn. in 1682. In 1683 he is listed with 3 "titheables". Charles died early in 1692. There is an estate inventory on record at Dover, Delaware dated July 18, 1692 which reveals that he had an estate valued at 385 pounds. It included a farm consisting of 500 acres and large holdings of livestock and grain. A later deed reveals that he died without issue but there is a chance that he was married or had been married. No record of the disposition of his estate was found.
4 -- JOHN STALLCOP, son of John Anderson Stallcop (l) and Christina Jonnson was born about 1660 in Delaware colony. He too, took the oath in 1682 but was not on the tax list of 1687. In 1693 he is listed as head of household, with 6 in the family (presumably his wife and their four children). John received a grant of land on September 1682. He was ordered by the Court of New Castle on October 3, 1682 to improve his land or forfeit it. The exact boundaries of the land he inherited from his father's estate are not known but it must have been in the neighborhood of a stream on the southwest side of Wilmington called Clement's Creek. Ferris relates the history of that stream thus:
"The stream on the southwest side of the city, formerly called "Clement's Creek," crosses the road leading to Baltimore, about one hundred yards west of Front Street at the first stone bridge on that road.... The name of "Clement's Kill" is of very ancient date.It is found in the article of agreement between old Johan Anderson and his assignees, Samuel Peterson and Lars Cornelison, dated April 16, 1675. After it was assigned to John Stalcop, on the division of his father's property, in 1686, it gradually assumed the name on "Stalcop's Gut". The stream passing down the Valley, east of Walnut Street which before that time was called "Sta1cop's Run" afterward took the name of "Mulberry Dock.”. The names of Stalcop's Run and Stalcop's Gut being so nearly alike, a change became necessary to prevent misunderstanding. But many of the old people never called the stream below Walnut Street Mulberry Dock, but always distinguished it by its old name of Stalcop's Run". John Stalcop was granted the Market Street Ferry by Johannus Ja?? who at that time was living somewhere near it. The ferry was still in the hands of the Stalcop Family in 1745, having passed from ?? to his son, Israel, then to Israel's son, John Stalcop. (Harry G.Staulcup, Notes on the Early Stalcop Family in Delaware, 1946,30, 31-32).
On December 6, 1697 Reverend Bjork writes in his record of church business concerning John Stalcop's part in establishing Old Swedish Church. "I was with the church wardens at Christina to decide upon the exact place to set the church, and as the church yard did not extend sufficiently high up for a convenient place without going over graves, and as we did not wish to set the church so lowdown, therefore, church warden John Stalcop gave of his own free will for the glory of God out of his own land, so large a p1ace needed for the church partly to stand upon, with two fathoms one south side and the west end for a free church walk, which put in writing and for which was remitted to him the four pounds which he had subscribed for the church. As Han Peitterson said that according to English law for such a gift, something must begiven in return be it ever so little." (Records of Holy TrinityChurch, Wilmington, 1890, p. 17).
John Stalcop also contributed work on the new church. The men working on the church boarded at John Stalcop's house. When work on the church was well underway, the congregation began making plans for a parsonage.
".....the congregation set about making good its promise to provide a convenient place to live for their minister. Church Warden John Stalcop owned all the suitable land in the neighborhood. Asked in May 1698 if he would consider selling a plot convenient to the church, he let them know in November that he was willing to sell the Pickering tract for 160 (pounds?) for 500 acres at some time in the future, but was unwilling to release even part of it by deed of sale at that time. (The Pickering tract included 400 acres of the original patent to John Anderson Stallcop and 100 additional acres which Christina Stalcop and her son John had bought in 1693 from Charles Pickering.) ln December he agreed to let the congregation have half of it rents free but without a deed until a later time.In the spring of 1699 he withdrew this concession and on Midsummer Day, June 24, offered as his only terms for·a deed that the church would buy the whole 500 acres (of Pickering Land) with conditions attached that they would keep the whole of it for the parsonage forever. From this stand John Stalcop would not budge. Bjork then released the congregation from any further thought of dealing with John Stalcop. In August of that summer John Stalcop took the initiative and without conditions except for payment terms being acceptable to the congregation, offered to prove ??? (Jeanette Eckman, Crane Hook on the Delaware 1667-1699, 1958,pp. 93-94)
Prior to the final sale of the Glebe land, there was an entertainment by the congregation held at the home of John Stalcop. 'we entertained at Christina at Church warden John Stalcop's.all the notable strangers so far as it was possible to gather them together, with meat, wine, ale, etc......." (Records of Holy TrinityChurch, Wilmington, 1890, pp. 42-44). After the above mentioned entertainment, John Stalcop changed his mind about selling the Glebe land. Events that followed are recorded as follows.
"....As now Church warden John Stalcop has well considered the matter of selling his land for a glebe so that he and his thereby not only now but hereafter will win an honorable name, he therefore on Michelmas Day, after the close of the Divine service, wished that a contract of purchase should be drawn up for the fear of sudden death or other hindrance, and it was done as the copy hereto shows:(29 Sept. 1699).
Articles of agreement made, done and concluded by and between John Stalcop of Christina, of the County of New Castle, of the one party, and the Reverend Minister Ericus Bjork, Minister of the Christina congregation, and Mr. Wholle Stobey, Brewer Seneke, Jacobus Van de Ver and Charles Springer, Church wardens of the aforesaid congregation of the other party witnesseth.........
whereas, there is a certain plantation and Tract of Land lying and sittuate upon Christeen creek commonly called the old land which had been formally In ye possession of Charles Pickering, containing by the two Ould deeds 500 acres, now this to be understood, that whereas this aforesaid Tract of land lyeth in two Tracts, now this Tract which belongeth to the Old land will I John Stallcop make over to the aforesaid persons for the use intended according to the pattent. Butt for the Other Tract of woodland Be it known that I have made an exchange with the Church wardens by Reason that the woodland which did belong to the Old land, did not lye so convenient. But did lye convenient to my land which belongeth to Christina, and the other lyeth convenient to the Tract of the Old land so called,and doe oblidge myself to make up for all the exchange, the principal number which is 500 Acres. Be it known that I John Stalcop for a Valuable consideration that is one hundred and sixty pounds of Silver Money hath freely and absolutely sold this aforesaid plantation, with house, Orchard, cleared ground and fencing half the hook meadow, and the 500 acres of land as the draughts more at large doth specifye and with all the conveniences whatsoever thereunto doth belong, which aforesaid Tract of land the Revered MinisterEricus Bjork and wholle Stobey, Brewer Seneke, Jacobus Van de Ver¢·and Charles Springer, as Minister and Churchwardens, of Christeen Congregation have in and for the behalf of Christeen Congregation Bought this aforesaid Tract of land for church land for a Minister to live upon so that it shall proper belong to the Church, and for Ministers to live upon and dispose of what They think fitt.......(Records for Holy Trinity Church, Wilmington, 1890).
John Stalcop signed with his mark, therefore we assume that he could not write. The document was witnessed by Matthias de Fosaand Asmund Stedham, the latter signed also with his mark.
John Stallcop married Annika Erickson, the daughter of John Brigand Magdalenag , of Lucas Point, Salem County, New Jersey. Date of their marriage and ages of their children are not known. ? was listed in 1693 as head of household with a family of six. ?? probably married about 1683-4. He wrote his will in July 1700 and was dead by August of that year, probably a victim of the epidemic which killed or left many of the inhabitants in poor health. His widow married John Gioding. They had a daughter who married Ant? Jacquett in 1724. Annika died on 7 March 1724. John Stallcop and Annika Erickson had the following children named in the will.
5 -- (DAUGHTER) STALLCOP, daughter of John Anderson Stallcop (1) and Christina Jonnson, was born about 1661 in Delaware colony. She married Lulof Stidham in 1679 and died before 1695. In that year Lulof married Cathrina Stallcop, the widow of Andrew Stallcop (2). Stidham was the son of Dr. Tymen Stidham, who, with John Anderson Stallcop, owned in 1669 the land where Wilmington, Delaware now stands. The name of Lulof Stidham's wife is not known. Lulof mentioned in John Anderson Stallcop's will as his son-in-law. He died in 1704. we have assumed that his three older children wereby his first wife.
6 -- PETER STALLCOP, son of John Anderson Stallcop (1) and Christina Joneson, was born about 1663 in Delaware colony. He died before May 1710 in New Castle County. Delaware. He married Catharine Peterson about 1685. She was the daughter of Samuel Peterson and Brita ________. After Peter Sta1lcop's death she married Lucas Stidham, Sr., a son of Dr. Tymen Stidham. Lucas died on 8 December 1726.
Peter Stallcop was listed as a tithable living on the north side of Christina Creek in 1687. He had in his possession some 100 acres of land. At the court of Quarter Sessions held at New Castle during the month of March 1689, a John Anderson acknowledged a deed of enforcement for 390 acres of land to Peter Stalcop.
Peter Stallcop made contributions to the Old Swedes' Church. He gave 7 pounds of first subscription money, 14 days work. 5000 ?? for plastering, 5 shillings (for legal expenses) 100 feet sawed wood (for minister's home), 5 pounds in 1699 (settlements of accounts). He furnished sheep for the entertainment held at John Stalcop's house following Dedication of the Church in 169? Names of his chlldren were obtained from his will and from recordsof Old Swedes' Church.
7 -- MARY STALLCOP, daughter of John Anderson Stallcop (1) and Christina Jonnson, was born about 1664 in Delaware colony. She married John Hanson Steelman after 1679. He had lived in New Castle County, at one time owning land adjoining land of Peter Stallcop (6). He was born in 1655 in New Sweden, the son of Hans Hansson and Ella Stille. Later the family name was changed to Steelman. Ella Stille had been married to Peter Jochim who died in 1654 in Manhattan.
John Hanson Steelman established his first trading post at the fork of the Big and Little Elk Creeks (present Elk Landing in Elkton, Cecil County, Maryland) a place then known as "Sahakitko". He was residing at this location by 1693 when he and his wife Mary Stalcop had a family of five. By the turn of the century his fame and fortune as an Indian trader were established. Both William Penn and Maryland vied for his talents in dealing with the Indians and the ministers of both the Wicaco (Philadelphia) and Christina (Wilmington) churches vied for his favors. ·
It was at John Hanson Steelman's home at Elk Landing where, on 24 June 1697, the Swedish religious contingent of Andrew Rudman, Eric Bjork, Jonas Auren, and Jonas Bjurstrom arrived from Sweden to fill the long-vacant pastorates at Wicaco and Crane Hook. Rev. Bjork described the arrival in these words:
"we then traveled with a favorable wind about 70 English miles [from Annapolis, Maryland] to a place called Trantown [Francetown], at the end of Elk River, until the second day at 10 o'clock, and from there one English mile to where some of the Swedes lived [Sahakitko].Before we had been there a day and a night, not only had the renown of our arrival spread almost incredibly, but people from a distance of 10, 12, to 16 miles came with horses to bring us more easily to the congregations. We were pleased to see that many cried with joy, and some would not believe anything before they saw us. "
Rev. Rudman assumed pastoral duties at Wicaco and Rev. Bjork at Crane Hook. Both ministers immediately, with support of their congregations, set about building new stone and brick churches to replace the log structures. Holy Trinity was dedicated in 1699 and Gloria Dei also in 1699 at Wicaco (Philadelphia).
Without the financial assistance of John Hanson Steelman, it is unlikely that Old Swedes Church in Wilmington could have been built. The first page of Rev. Bjork's churchbook reads: "To the Church of Holy Trinity at Christina in Pensilvania, America, is this bound book given for a church book, by Mr. John Hance Stellman in the year 1699." Inside, Bjork recounts how Steelman advanced 200 pounds cash for construction of the church and allowed the church to assume a 100-pound note owed to Steelman by his brother-in-law John Stalcop, when the latter gave part of his land to the church.on 16 November 1706 Steelman forgave this note and all unpaid interest and was duly rewarded as follows: